Wine Grape A-2467 named 'Enchantment'



Average harvest date for ‘Enchantment’ was 22 Aug. Juice pH averaged 3.4, titratable

acidity averaged 0.8%, and soluble solids averaged 18.9%. Yield of 10.1 kg/vine was

recorded for ‘Enchantment’. Crop rating averaged 7.7, reflecting good cropping consistency and

potential. Berry weight averaged 1.5 g while clusters averaged 178.3 g. Clusters fill

was rated 9.0, indicating a compact cluster but not as excessively tight compared to

‘Opportunity’. Fruit cracking following summer rains near harvest was not observed for

‘Enchantment’.  ‘Enchantment’ is unique as it is a teinturier grape, meaning that the grape’s flesh

and juice are red due to anthocyanin pigments accumulating within the pulp of the grape berry.

Typically, anthocyanin pigments are in the outer skin tissue of the grape and the dark color of red

wines come from anthocyanin’s extracted from the crushed skins during fermentation. Notes on

the fruit evaluated prior to wine production showed that the clusters were loose and medium in

size with small-sized berries.  In addition, the dark color of the pulp and flesh were noted.

Rating for vigor averaged 6.7, indicating moderate vigor. Health of the vines

was consistently rated good also, averaging 7.1. Leaves were often noted to be more pale in

green color than other genotypes in the research vineyard but this appearance did not appear to

affect vine performance. Observations each year included examination of the vines for presence

of diseases, with fungicide applications as described prior. Some rotting of berries was observed

in some years particularly near harvest (pathogen not identified). This again is likely due to the

extended period since the last fungicide spray was applied (as mentioned earlier).  Occasional

berry shriveling was noted near harvest, particularly in the hottest summers of evaluation,

indicating some heat stress on the fruit. In 18 years of observation, powdery mildew was seen on

leaves in two years, and on fruit in the severe powdery mildew year of 2015. Downy mildew was

observed one year with a slight infection on leaves. As stated for ‘Opportunity’, neither black rot

nor anthracnose were noted on the vines. It is also hoped that with ‘Enchantment’ that the

minimal observation of common diseases reflects the potential to manage disease pressures with

average or possibly slightly reduced applications of fungicides.


The adaptation of ‘Enchantment’ to the climate at Fruit Research Station was also found to be good, and

reflective of its potential for reliable production in the Mid-South. Winter injury was not

common during its testing, reflecting good hardiness for this location. However, the late-spring

freeze of 2007 which occurred after shoots were extended approximately 0.5 m contributed to

injury to the cordons in addition to the shoots. In testing in New York, ‘Enchantment’ had two of

five vines surviving by 2006 but surviving vines did experience bud and trunk damage in the

winters of 2003-04 and 2004-05 where winter minima were below -23°C. As with

‘Opportunity’, late ripening in New York was noted as a limitation for ‘Enchantment’ in this

shorter-season climate. Commercial growers in Arkansas evaluating this cultivar noted that

‘Enchantment’ is resilient in the vineyard and can be hand or machine picked at harvest.

Juice and wine quality of ‘Enchantment’ was consistently good as reflected by various

measurements of composition. The composition of the juice is generally ideal for wine

production, but the pH and titratable acidity need to be monitored during fermentation, especially

during malolactic fermentations. The yield at crushing was 4.9 kg of grapes for 3.8 L of juice,

which is typically more than ‘Cynthiana’ wine grapes in Arkansas. ‘Enchantment’ was compared

to ‘Cynthiana’, as is the primary red grape that grows well in this region.  Fermentation should

be done at 15 °C to retain characteristics of the wine. Fermentation on the skins can substantially

impact the wine, but generally 2-5 d on the skins will maximize the positive attributes of this


The wine evaluation panels with the Arkansas grape and winery industry indicated a

positive impression of ‘Enchantment’ wine. The deep, dark red color of the wine was noted,

along with a “cherry-like” aroma.  The wine is similar to ‘Petit Syrah’ in color and mouthfeel.

The only negative concern was the slight vegetative aroma of the non-aged wine. The panel

thought this cultivar would be addition for red wine production in Arkansas. Because of the

deep color, this wine could also be used for blending.  There are not many red grape cultivars

that produce well in this region, so ‘Enchantment’ can be a positive addition to the Arkansas

grape and wine industry due to the versatility ranging from blush, to dry, or to oaked.




Patent Information:
Fruit Crops
For Information, Contact:
Bryan Renk
Associate Director for Technology Commercialization
University of Arkansas TCO
John Clark
James Moore
Renee Threlfall
Justin Morris
© 2019. All Rights Reserved. Powered by Inteum